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The nonprofit International Imaging Industry Association (I3A) is the largest imaging industry group in the world, and serves as the central forum for the development and advancement of open standards within the imaging industry. It traces its beginnings to 1946 with the establishment of the National Association of Photographic Manufacturers (NAPM), later renamed the…
The International Color Consortium (ICC) was established in 1993 to create, promote and encourage the standardization and evolution of an open, vendor-neutral, cross-platform color management system architecture. The resulting ICC specification (ISO 15076-1:2005) provides a cross-platform format to translate color data between devices in order to ensure color fidelity, and is specified in many…
ICR is an abbreviation for Intelligent Character Recognition. It is an electronic process similar to OCR, but is designed for the recognition of handwritten characters and their conversion to electronic characters. Because of the highly variable characteristics of handwriting, ICR accuracy tends to be much lower than what is achieved with OCR.…
See Also HCR; OCR
Founded in 1906, the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) prepares and publishes International Standards for all ‘electrotechnology’ fields (electrical, electronic and related technologies). IEC standards are created and maintained by 179 technical committees and about 700 working groups representing the sixty-nine national committees that make up the IEC membership.…
A non-profit organization, IEEE is a worldwide professional association for the advancement of technology areas ranging from aerospace systems, computers and telecommunications to biomedical engineering, electric power and consumer electronics among others. The IEEE name was originally an acronym for the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. Today, the organization's scope…
The total amount of light illuminating a point on a surface from all directions above the surface. Illuminance is equivalent to irradiance weighted with the tristimulus response curve of the human eye.…
See Irradiance
Image capture
See Digital imaging
Image processing (digital)
The manipulation of digitally encoded image data. Two of the most common categories of image processing include image data compression and image enhancement. Typical processes include resizing, cropping, sharpening, rotating, and adjusting color or contrast.…
Image resolution
See Resolution
Image state
During the last few years, imaging specialists have refined the concept of image states and, in 2004, this concept was described and defined in the international standard Photography and graphic technology—Extended Colour encodings for digital image storage, manipulation, and interchange (ISO 22028-1). At the highest level, there are two states: scene-referred, which "represents estimates of…
Image targets
See Intermodulation distortion (audio)
Informational and artifactual value
This pairing provides a rough-and-ready conceptual frame for some of the discussions of the Federal Agencies Digitization Working Groups. The distinction between informational and artifactual is most easily discerned in the case of textual materials (roughly speaking, the text as compared to images of pages) and more difficult in the case of pictorial materials (the…
See Also Virtual replica; Physical replica; Museum-quality facsimile or print
Infrared (radiation)
Infrared radiation encompasses the portion of the electromagnetic (EM) spectrum with wavelengths longer than those within the visible spectrum. Infrared radiation is commonly subdivided into "near" and "far," with these descriptors referring to the relative distance or proximity to the visible spectrum. The wavelengths comprising near infrared radiation fall in a range closer…
Intellectual entity (PREMIS term)
A set of content that is considered a single intellectual unit for purposes of management and description: for example, a particular book, map, photograph, or database. An Intellectual Entity can include other Intellectual Entities; for example, a Web site can include a Web page; a Web page can include an image. An Intellectual Entity may have…
See Also Digital package; Representation (PREMIS term); Object (PREMIS term)
Intelligent Character Recognition
Interleaved sample audio
A pulse code modulated (PCM) signal consists of a stream of samples; if the type is monaural, each sample will belong to one channel. If there is more than one channel, the channels will almost always be interleaved. In the case of stereo data: left sample, right sample, left, right, etc.…
See Multi-track (audio)
Intermodulation distortion (audio)
IMD results when two or more signals of different frequencies are mixed together and additional signals are formed at frequencies that are not, in general, at harmonic frequencies (integer multiples) of either source signal. Intermodulation causes spurious emissions that can create minor to severe interference to other operations on the signal. Although IMD may…
See Distortion
International Color Consortium
International Organization for Standardization
See ISO (Standards Organization)
Interpositives, duplicate negatives, and transparencies
Pertains to the copying of photographic negatives and color transparencies, i.e., items used or viewed by transmitted light. For many years, library and archive preservation programs created duplicate negatives or transparencies in order to have a surrogate for the original in the event of damage or loss, or to reduce the handling and use of…
See Copy negatives and transparencies
An abbreviation for the International Press Telecommunications Council, the IPTC is a consortium of the world\'s major news agencies, news publishers and news industry vendors. It develops and maintains technical standards for improved news exchange that are used by virtually every major news organization in the world. Of particular importance to digital imaging is …
IPTC Metadata
Embedded metadata used for image management. IPTC metadata is primarily composed of descriptive, administrative, and rights metadata, as opposed to the technical nature of Exif. IPTC metadata was developed and is controlled by the IPTC.…
The amount of radiant power incident per unit area on a surface, divided by the area of this surface. The measure of irradiance is often expressed in watts per square meter.…
See Illuminance
ISO (film speed)
Used colloquially in the context of film photography, ISO followed by a number (e.g., 400) represented the sensitivity of a given film emulsion to light, often referred to as "film speed." Higher ISO numbers indicated a greater sensitivity to light. The emulsion speed sensitivity was determined by the standards of the International Standards Organization…
See ISO (Standards Organization)
ISO (standards organization)
The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is the world’s largest standards organization. Its membership is composed of the national standards institutes of 157 countries. Since its formation in 1947, it has published more than 17,000 international standards in response to global needs. ISO standards are developed by 200 technical committees which include…